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The most commonly used multiplier circuit is the Half-Wave Series Multiplier. All multiplier circuits can be derived from its operating principles. The following description assumes no losses and represents sequential reversals of polarity of the transformer Ts in Figure 1. (in reality several cycles are required to reach full voltage):
Series Half-wave High Voltage Multiplier Schematic

1) Ts=Negative Peak: C1 charges through D1 to Epk
2) Ts=Positive Peak: Epk of Ts adds arithmetically to existing potential C1, thus C2 charges to 2Epk thru D2
3) Ts=Negative Peak: C3 is charged to 2Epk through D3
4) Ts=Positive Peak: C4 is charged to 2Epk through D4 then Epk(N) where N = number of stages.

Last revised: 03 Aug 2012